Lidzbark Warminski - partner MTB Media World Cup 2017
Lidzbark Warmiński is located in the north - western part of the warmińsko-mazurskie province. It was originally a Prussian settlement Lecbarg, until being conquered by the Teutonic Knights in 1240 and three years later became a part of the newly established diocese of Warmia. In 1308 the settlement was conferred civic rights by bishop Eberhard.
After the Second Peace of Thorn, Lidzbark Warmiński and the entire region of Warmia was incorporated into the Republic of Poland. In 1497 the town was almost completely devoured by fire. In 1656 Lidzbark Warmiński was besieged by Swedish and Brandenburgian armies, and in 1672 one of the Swedish attacks was repulsed successfully. Between 1703-1709 the enemy troops were occupying the town. Between 1767-1795 its bishop was Ignacy Krasicki.
After his death the bishops’ seat was moved to Olsztyn. In 1807 one of the largest battles of that region was held–the Battle of Heilsberg, where Russian, Prussian and Napoleonic armies struggled. Between 1821-1823 the first evangelic church in the Warmia region was built. The largest changes in the Old Town development followed the fire of 1865, when the town hall and part of the Old Town were burnt down. The new town hall was built in 1902. Lidzbark Warmiński was conferred back to Poland in 1945, burnt down and ruined. The historic part of the town was built up with large panel buildings. In 1999 Lidzbark Warmiński became a city with poviat rights again.
WARMIA BISHOPS CASTLE
On the eastern side of the city, among wooded moraine hills, it is one of the oldest and most valuable monuments of Lidzbark Warminski. It is the stately Gothic castle. The castle was built on a relatively narrow peninsula at the mouth of Symsarna to a spreading widely here Lyna. proper castle (house) is located approximately in the middle of the peninsula; south stretched ward, north and - at the confluence of the rivers - the castle mill, the area, no doubt heavily fortified, created as if the second ward. Between the mill and the castle ran the road to the city.
Across the city Mill Gate had to be, as a second foothold on the bridge Lyna gate forming part of the castle, through which - as demonstrated by research Antoni Kąsinowskiego - led the main entrance and at first only. Castle with fore-rimmed from the south, east and north a wide moat , probably fed waters Symsarna. The Eastern side of the moat separated from Symsarna high dike . Indirect moat, this time with a dry, dug between the castle and the forecastle.
ORTHODOX CHURCH ST. AP. PETER AND PAUL
The church is an outstanding work of architecture at the Protestant Warmia . It was built in the years 1818-1823, financed by the Prussian King Frederick William III . Issued in the construction of half-timbered , on a stone foundation; timbered, is a three-aisled , pięcioprzęsłową basilica emporową , with a shallow chancel from the north and a two-tower facade of the south. Inside the galleries supported by pillars quadrilateral, open to the nave wide semicircular arcades .
For the construction of the church building project used the brick prepared at the University Deputation Building (Oberbaudeputation) in Berlin, then headed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel . It is believed that the church design was directly inspired by the work of Schinkel. In the project, you can watch a professed by the architect of the idea of combining historical forms from various styles and periods, the innovative structure in terms of composition and aesthetics. At the same time, to build a temple Lidzbarski no similar architectural solution in the works of Karl Friedrich Schinkel; we find it a little later in the concept of the church in Straupitz Lausitz (contract of 1826).
SUMMER GARDENS BISKUPIE
To the south of the parish church , on the right bank Lyna , from the end of the fifteenth century there were gardens bishop. Erected there the garden pavilions and palaces of performing the functions of summer residences. These buildings were destroyed during the Swedish wars in the years 1654 - 1660 and 1705 years. Restoration of the gardens took Bishop Teodor Potocki (1711 - 1723) and to the great heyday led them Bishop Ignacy Krasicki.
Around 1,770 years expanded also modest garden pavilion built by Bishop Potocki, giving the whole classical form. The resulting rectangular in plan structure consisting of five proportionally and harmoniously adjoining parts. The central part of the conservatory, both sides have projections topped triangular naszczółkami, once decorated with the coat of arms Krasicki. Mounted his extreme areas are slightly higher and four half-columns accented by fine Tuscan. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries the interior was rebuilt.
Without major changes, leaving only the octagonal central hall, covered with a seemingly flattened dome, decorated cornice running around the whole room. Inside it is unveiled in 1969 fragment of wall paintings from the time Krasickiego, depicting an allegory of the seasons. The Orangery is a unique building in Warmia, formed under the influence of Polish architectural thought the day of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski. Today, it houses the library pedagogical. Tourists are also available for exploring the main hall - concert.
The driver cursing tangle of short streets in the center of Lidzbarka must realize that this is a consequence of the behavior of a typical medieval layout of streets. You are looking at the plan but you can see some deviations from typicality (eg. Market - Pl. Freedom is not in the center). Historians explain this specific terrain compressed in the bend Lyna and falling toward her. The unusual location of the market can be explained by the early expansion of the city fortifications and shift to the west - toward the river. This was done certainly before the year 1357, when he faced the first brick fortifications.
The current street layout center is basically a relic of the Middle Ages, though tragic for the city of 1945 deprived them of 80% of the "old town". Lidzbark from the beginning had a fortification. Initially, it was Gródek Prussian, then one of the typical wood and earthen Teutonic castles. The fortifications the city received in 1308. Their line ran along the street Hoza, further ul. Kajki, Reja, Kasprowicz. Quickly, because before 1357. Arose walls. They underwent multiple reconstructions and restorations. Range walls extended in a westerly direction. Their quality is demonstrated repeatedly repulsed the siege.